GNU Emacs is an excellent piece of software. The purpose of this article is not to convince you of that. Rather, if you have already drunk the Kool-Aid, you may be wondering, “Okay, so I tried getting started, but as soon as I needed to customize something, I got confused”. This is because Emacs is a large, complex system. Some parts of its complexity are justified; other parts could be greatly improved. Nevertheless, what matters to you is learning how to get done whatever you need to get done.

The approach I take in this article is not to give you a laundry list of things you can customize. I think this approach is doomed to failure, because there is no way to catalogue all the things you might want to customize. Instead, I will try to explain how to learn to customize Emacs. I will cover:

• the surprising features of Emacs Lisp as they contrast with other programming languages
• common patterns you need to know for writing an Emacs configuration
• how to translate “make Emacs do X” into code
• how to debug an Emacs configuration
• suggestions for scaling an Emacs configuration, based on my three-year experience maintaining the cutting-edge Radian configuration
• suggestions on specific (internal and) external packages to use, and comparisons between the available alternatives

## Emacs Lisp: the language

Emacs Lisp:

### Emacs Lisp: the highlights

The next few sections cover the very basics of how Emacs Lisp works as a language. After that, we’ll go into common idioms that you will probably use in your Emacs configuration.

#### Syntax and evaluation

(If you’ve worked with a Lisp before, you probably already know everything in this sub-section.)

Emacs Lisp is a Lisp, so all source code is composed of lists. Here is some example code from Radian:

(not (memq (lsp--workspace-client (lsp--client-server-id w))
'(jsts-ls mspyls bash-ls texlab)))


In this code:

• the not function is called with one argument, in which:
• the memq function is called with two arguments, in which:
• the lsp--workspace-client function is called with one argument, in which:
• the lsp--client-server-id function is called with one argument, namely the variable w
• the quote ' indicates that the next form should not be evaluated, so:
• instead of the jsts-ls function being called with three arguments, namely the variables mspyls, bash-ls, and texlab, we get just a list of four elements, namely the symbols jsts-ls, mspyls, bash-ls, and texlab.

The evaluation goes from inside to out, so first lsp--client-server-id is called, and then lsp--workspace-client is given its return value, and then memq is given its return value along with the list (jsts-ls mspyls bash-ls texlab), and then the return value of memq is passed to not.

Emacs Lisp makes extensive use of macros (user-definable) and special forms (built in to the interpreter), both of which can change the way that evaluation works. The quote character used above is a special form which prevents evaluation entirely. As another example, consider some more example code from Radian:

(if (= (safe-length collection) 1)
(car collection)


The if special form doesn’t let all of its arguments be evaluated. In the code above, (= (safe-length collection) 1) is evaluated, and if it is true, then (car collection) is evaluated and returned; otherwise, (apply orig-completing-read prompt collection args) is evaluated and returned. Under no circumstances are all of the arguments of if ever evaluated in the same call.

As a final example, consider the following code from Radian:

(thread-first w
(lsp--workspace-client)
(lsp--client-server-id)
(memq '(jsts-ls mspyls bash-ls texlab))
(not))


If you think it seems similar to the first example, that’s because I lied about the first example: it actually appears as this in Radian. thread-first is a macro, which means it receives its arguments unevaluated (i.e. as a bunch of lists and symbols) and then returns the code that should actually be evaluated (i.e. a bunch of different lists and symbols). thread-first takes its first argument and puts it into its second argument, then takes its second argument and puts it into its third argument, and so on. What we end up with is exactly the code in the first example. In conclusion, when a macro is involved, evaluation can do basically anything. The macrostep package is helpful for viewing the expansions of Emacs Lisp macros directly inline.

#### Data types

Emacs Lisp has a number of primitive data types:

• Strings (immutable)
• Syntax: "hello"
• Convert a symbol to a string:
(symbol-name 'hello)
;; => "hello"

• Convert any object to a string:
(format "%S" '(list of symbols))
;; => "(list of symbols)"

• Functions:
(concat "string1" ", string2" ", string3")
;; => "string1, string2, string3"

(string-join '("string1" "string2" "string3") ", ")
;; => "string1, string2, string3"

(string-trim "  **foo bar**  ")
;; => "**foo bar**"

(format "C-style printf with %s, %d, 0x%x, etc." "strings" 42 42)
;; => "C-style printf with strings, 42, 0x2a, etc."

• Symbols
• Symbols are like strings, except every symbol with the same content is actually the same object in memory.
• Syntax: hello (but you have to make sure the symbol is not evaluated because then it would be treated as a variable – so usually it will look like 'hello, or a list of symbols would look like '(list of symbols))
• Convert a string to a symbol:
(intern "hello")
;; => hello

• You can also create a symbol that doesn’t share memory with other symbols that have the same content (so it won’t compare equal to them):
(eq (intern "hello") (intern "hello"))
;; => t  (i.e. they are the same)

(eq (make-symbol "hello") (make-symbol "hello"))
;; => nil  (i.e. they are not the same)


This feature can be useful when writing macros.

• Keywords
• Keywords are just symbols that start with a colon :. They have a special property where you can write them without quoting them:
foo
;; => unbound variable error

'foo
;; => the symbol foo

:foo
;; => the symbol/keyword :foo

':foo
;; => also the symbol/keyword :foo

• Integers
• Syntax: 42 or -17
• Limited range (determined by the variables most-negative-fixnum and most-positive-fixnum – these are -2305843009213693952 and 2305843009213693951 on my computer), with silent wraparound
• Convert a floating-point number to an integer:
(round 2.7)
;; => 3

• Functions:
(+ 2 3)
;; => 5

(- 2 3)
;; => -1

(- 2)
;; => -2  (i.e. - with one argument does negation)

(* 2 3)
;; => 6

(/ 2 3)
;; => 0  (i.e. integer division rounds toward zero)

(1+ 3)
;; => 4

(1- 3)
;; => 2  (i.e. 1- is "one less than", not "one minus")

• Floating-point numbers
• Syntax: 3.14 or -6.022e+23
• Convert an integer to a floating-point number:
(float 3)
;; => 3.0

• All the same integer arithmetic functions work with floating-point numbers as well. Integers are converted to floating-point numbers as necessary:
(/ 2.0 3)
;; => 0.6666666666666666

• Lists (mutable)
• Syntax: (foo bar baz) (but you have to make sure the list is not evaluated because then it would be treated as a function call – so usually it will look like '(foo bar baz), or a list of lists would look like '((foo bar) (baz quux)))
• Usually instead of writing lists directly, you’ll use the list function, which evaluates its arguments before putting them in the list:
'(2 3 (+ 2 3))
;; => (2 3 (+ 2 3))

(list 2 3 (+ 2 3))
;; => (2 3 5)

'(the sum of 2 and 3 is (+ 2 3))
;; => (the sum of 2 and 3 is (+ 2 3))

(list 'the 'sum 'of 2 'and 3 'is (+ 2 3))
;; => (the sum of 2 and 3 is 5)

• The symbol nil (which is like a keyword; you don’t need to quote it) is the empty list. You can use it just like any other list.
nil
;; => nil

'nil
;; => nil

()
;; => nil

'()
;; => nil

(list)
;; => nil

• Functions:
(cons 'foo '(bar baz))
;; => (foo bar baz)

(car '(foo bar baz))
;; => foo

(cdr '(foo bar baz))
;; => (bar baz)

(car (last '(foo bar baz)))
;; => baz

(length '(foo bar baz))
;; => baz

(append '(foo bar) '(baz quux))
=> (foo bar baz quux)

(reverse '(foo bar baz))
;; => (baz bar foo)

(let ((my-list '(foo bar baz)))
(setcar my-list 'quux)
my-list)
;; => (quux bar baz)

(let ((my-list '(foo bar baz)))
(setcdr my-list '(quux baz bar))
my-list)
;; => (foo quux baz bar)

• Lists in Emacs Lisp are actually built out of objects called conses. A cons has a car and a cdr. Any list is either nil or a cons. If it’s a cons, then the car is the first element and the cdr is the rest of the list (either nil or another cons). So:
(list 1 2 3)
;; => (1 2 3)

(cons 1 (cons 2 (cons 3 nil)))
;; => (1 2 3)


You can, however, put whatever you want in the cdr, not just another list:

(cons 1 2)
;; => (1 . 2)

(cons 1 (cons 2 (cons 3 4)))
;; => (1 2 3 . 4)

'(1 2 3 . 4)
;; => (1 2 3 . 4)

(list (cons 'lhs 5) (cons 'rhs 7) (cons 'sum 12))
;; => ((lhs . 5) (rhs . 7) (sum . 12))

• Vectors (mutable) – aka arrays
• Not very important. All you need to know is they use square brackets, just in case you see that somewhere.
• Hash tables (mutable) – aka dictionaries or maps
• Syntax: none; use the make-hash-table function to create one
• When using only symbols as hash table keys, use (make-hash-table :test #'eq). Otherwise, use (make-hash-table :test #'equal). See the Comparison section below. (You can use arbitrary objects as hash table keys, as long as they can be compared using the test function – i.e. eq or equal, as appropriate.)
• Because hash tables are clunky in Emacs Lisp, frequently alists or plists (see below) are used instead, unless you need really fast lookup and there are many keys.
• Functions:
(let ((table (make-hash-table :test #'eq)))
(puthash 'foo 'bar table)
(gethash 'foo table))
=> bar

(let ((table (make-hash-table :test #'eq)))
(gethash 'foo table))
=> nil  (i.e. gethash returns nil if the key is missing)

(let ((table (make-hash-table :test #'eq)))
(gethash 'foo table 'default))
=> default

(let ((table (make-hash-table :test #'eq)))
(puthash 'foo 'bar table)
(remhash 'foo table)
(gethash 'foo table))
=> nil

• There’s no way to check if a key is present in a hash table. Just don’t use nil as a value, and you’ll be fine. If you really need to check, you can use make-symbol to generate a symbol that nobody else has a reference to, and use that as the default value for gethash. Then if you get that symbol back, you’ll know the key wasn’t there.

It also has some more complex data types built from the simpler ones:

• Booleans
• Emacs Lisp doesn’t really have a boolean data type. The symbol nil (or equivalently the empty list) is false, and everything else is true. The “canonical” true value is the symbol t, which (like nil and keywords) doesn’t need to be quoted. It’s idiomatic to talk about “nil” and “non-nil” values instead of “false” and “true” or “falsy” and “truthy” values.
• Functions: and, or, not, xor
• Alists
• Alists (“association lists”) are like a poor man’s hash table. They are a list of conses, like ((foo . bar) (baz . quux)). The cars of the conses are the keys, and the cdrs are the values. Usually, the keys of an alist are symbols, since that makes them easier to manipulate. You have to use different functions otherwise.
• Functions:
(alist-get 'baz '((foo . bar) (baz . quux)))
;; => quux

(alist-get "baz" '(("foo" . bar) ("baz" . quux)) nil nil #'equal)
;; => quux  (i.e., you have to specify #'equal to use strings as keys)

(let ((my-alist '((foo . bar) (baz . quux))))
(setf (alist-get 'baz my-alist) 'QUUX)
my-alist)
;; => ((foo . bar) (baz . QUUX))

(let ((my-alist '(("foo" . bar) ("baz" . quux))))
(setf (alist-get "baz" my-alist) 'QUUX)
my-alist)
;; => (("foo" . bar) ("baz" . QUUX))

(let ((my-alist '((foo . bar) (baz . quux))))
(setf (alist-get 'baz my-alist nil 'remove) nil)
my-alist)
;; => ((foo . bar))

• Plists
• Plists (“property lists”) are another way of using lists as a key-value store. They are less common than alists, except that many functions take keyword arguments as a plist. A plist is just a regular list which alternates between keys and values. Plist keys are basically always symbols; otherwise, there aren’t good functions in the standard library for manipulating them. In fact, by convention, the keys are generally keywords rather than any old symbols. Unfortunately, there currently isn’t any good function in the standard library for removing a key from a plist.
• Functions:
(plist-get '(:foo bar :baz quux) :baz)
;; => quux

(let ((my-plist '(:foo bar :baz quux)))
(setq my-plist (plist-put my-plist :baz 'QUUX))
my-plist)
;; => (:foo bar :baz QUUX)